The Thirty Years’ War was a major European war that occurred during the 17th century. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. One of the causes of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was the growing religious and political tension between Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians. Within Germany, local clashes are invariably between Catholic and Protestant armies. The war also has a few more subtle consequences. Yet Catholic France in 1635 enters the war as the ally of the Protestant Dutch and Swedes against the Catholic Spanish. Whilst the conflict took place mainly in the area of modern day Germany, it involved many of the great European powers at that time. R. Bireley, ‘The Thirty Years War as Germany's Religious War', in K. Repgen, ed., Krieg und Politik 1618–1648 (Munich, 1988), 85–106. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). For instance, professor Cavanaugh offers the following short critique after a long list of historical instances [included below] building-up-to and during the Thirty Years’ War. There were other religious conflicts in the years to come, but no great wars. The Thirty Years’ War had a profound impact on Europe, and some of the consequences of this war can be seen in the changes that were made … Both ingredients, politics and religion, prompt the event usually considered as the start of the Thirty Years' War. The Thirty Years’ War ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, but not before between 3 and 12 million people were killed in the warfare and its aftermath (disease and famine). The Thirty Years’ War and the Peace of Westphalia. [….] The effects of the war included the creation of the Peace of Westphalia and a start to remaking the religious and political boundaries in Europe. The "learned", humanist forms of the Reforma-tion still survive in the politico-religious tracts which continue to appear in The Bohemian problem was resolved swiftly. ... Sweden from 1611 to 1632, who led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years’ War, helping to determine the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe. And it was this upheaval – not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll. CARTOONS OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 67 and the awakening political consciousness and news-hunger of wide and often semi-illiterate sections of the general public leads to the rise of journalism in the modern sense of the word. The Thirty Years' War marked the last major religious war in mainland Europe, ending the large-scale religious bloodshed accompanying the Reformation, which had begun over a century before. Gardiner, The Thirty Years War 1618–1648 (London, 1889) offers a more Protestant version of this narrative. And the Thirty Years’ War cannot be viewed as “religious” in that you should find certain aspects if this were the case. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire between 1618 and 1648. The Thirty Years’ War profoundly altered Europe’s political landscape and social fabric. Almost four centuries on, the Thirty Years’ War teaches us how protracted conflict can bring about famine and spell disaster for civilians. Atheists often point to the religious wars as example of how religion is almost always the cause of war . 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